In fact, because I recognize many will read or hear only about the Dietary Goals….I feel the American public would be in a better position to exercise freedom of dietary choice if it were stated in bold print on the Goals and Food Selection pages that the value of dietary change remains controversial. And that science cannot at this time insure that an altered diet will provide protection from certain killer diseases such as heart disease and cancer…I recognize the desirability of providing dietary guidance to the public ... In my judgment, however, the best way to do this is to fully inform the public not only about what is known, but also what remains controversial regarding cholesterol, the benefits of dietary change, and the reliability of food intake data. Only then, will it be possible for individual consumers to respond optimally to the Dietary Goals in this report.
Adiponectin Changes in Relation to the Macronutrient Composition of a Weight-Loss Diet
After 10 months, the low carb dieters lost more weight than the low fat (LF) group (20 pounds vs. 10.9 pounds) and more fat (12 pounds vs. 5.7 pounds in the LF group), despite reportedly eating the same amount of calories.
Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum
After 4 weeks, the high protein, low carbohydrate diet resulted in more weight loss (13.9 pounds vs. 9.4 pounds in the medium carbohydrate group), significantly less hunger, while spontaneously consuming 167 less calories each day.
Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women: The A TO Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial.
Atkins group lost the most weight (13.2 pounds at 6 months, 10.3 pounds at 1 year); Systolic BP significantly lower at 12 months. At all times, HDL and triglyceride levels favored the Atkins group.
Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women.
High fat and high protein groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference, and triglycerides. Insulin decreased in all 3 diets. Energy intake did not differ between groups.
A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia.
Calorie unrestricted, low carbohydrate diet group had greater weight loss (12.9% of weight vs. 6.7% in low-fat), greater loss of fat mass (-20.68 pounds vs -10.3 pounds), greater decreases in triglycerides (-74.2 mg/dl vs -27.9 mg/dl), and greater increases in HDL (5.5 mg/dl vs. -1.6m mg/dl).
A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.
Very low carb group lost more weight (18.7 lbs vs. 8.5 lbs) and more body fat (10.5 lbs vs. 4.4 lbs) than the low fat group. No difference between diets in blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin.
A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity.
Subjects on calorie unrestricted, low-carb diet lost more weight on average (-12.76 lbs vs. -4.18 lbs), and greater decreases in triglyceride levels (-20% vs. -4%) as compared to low-fat diet. Insulin sensitivity (measured in non-diabetics only) also improved more on low carbohydrate diet (+6% vs. -3%).
The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
The low carb, ketogenic diet (LCKD) group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%), body weight (24.4 pounds vs. 13.8 pounds), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL) compared to the low glycemic, reduced calorie diet (LGID) group.
Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, mediterranean, or low-fat diet
Low carb group lost more weight (10.3 lbs) than the low fat group (6.4 lbs) and slightly more than the mediterranean diet group (9.68 lbs).
The role of energy expenditure in the differential weight loss in obese women on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets.
Very low carb group lost more weight (21.5 pounds vs. 13.4 pounds in low-fat group) and more body fat (13.6 lbs vs. 7 lbs on low-fat). No difference in energy intake between groups.
The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat: A Randomized Trial
After 3 months, compared with the NCEP diet (fat (30%), carbs (55%), and protein (15%)), the low carb diet resulted in significantly more weight loss (13.6 lb) than in the NCEP group (7.5 lb).
Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women
Men on VLCK diet performed significantly better in weight loss (-17.6 pounds vs. -10 pounds), total fat loss, and trunk fat loss, despite consuming slightly more calories (1855 kcals vs 1562 for LF). Women on a VLCK diet also performed slightly better, but it was not significant.
A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity
Subjects on calorie unrestricted, low-carb diet lost more body fat at 3 months (-6.8 % vs. -2.7%), and at 6 months (-7% vs. -3.2% in the low fat group). At 12 months, difference was not significant. HDL increase and triglyceride decrease were larger on the low carb diet.
Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in the ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity.
After 6 months the low carb group lost more weight ( 19.58 pounds vs. 11.2 pounds) and lost more fat (16.7 pounds vs. 9.46 pounds) than the high carbohydrate group. 35% of subjects in the low carb group lost more than 22 pounds compared to only 9% in the high carb group. Only the high protein, low carb group significantly decreased their triglyceride levels.
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